Essay On State Division In India

Madhya Pradesh, state of India. As its name implies—madhya means “central” and pradesh means “region” or “state”—it is situated in the heart of the country. The state has no coastline and no international frontier. It is bounded by the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the southwest, and Rajasthan to the northwest. The capital is Bhopal, in the west-central part of the state. Area 119,016 square miles (308,252 square km). Pop. (2011) 72,597,565.

Land

Madhya Pradesh lies over a transitional area between the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the north and the Deccan plateau in the south. Its physiography is characterized by low hills, extensive plateaus, and river valleys.

Relief

The elevation of Madhya Pradesh ranges from 300 to 3,900 feet (90 to 1,200 metres). In the northern part of the state the land rises generally from south to north, while in the southern part it increases in elevation toward the west. Important ranges of hills are the Vindhya Range, in the west, and its northern branch, the Kaimur Hills, both of which reach elevations of 1,500 feet (460 metres), and the Satpura, Mahadeo, and Maikala ranges, in the south, which have elevations of more than 3,000 feet (900 metres). The Dhupgarh Peak (4,429 feet [1,350 metres]), near Pachmarhi in south-central Madhya Pradesh, is the state’s highest point. Northwest of the Vindhya Range is the Malwa Plateau (1,650 to 2,000 feet [500 to 600 metres]). Other features include the Rewa Plateau, in the rugged eastern region of the Vindhya Range, the Bundelkhand Upland, north of the Vindhyas, the Madhya Bharat Plateau, in the extreme northwest, and the Baghelkhand Plateau, in the northeast.

Drainage and soils

Madhya Pradesh contains the source of some of the most important rivers in the Indian peninsula: the Narmada, the Tapti (Tapi), the Mahanadi, and the Wainganga (a tributary of the Godavari). The Chambal forms the state’s northern border with Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Other rivers include tributaries of the Yamuna and the Son (itself a tributary of the Ganges [Ganga]).

Soils in Madhya Pradesh can be classified into two major groups. Fertile black soils are found in the Malwa Plateau, the Narmada valley, and parts of the Satpura Range. Less-fertile red-to-yellow soils are spread over much of eastern Madhya Pradesh.

Climate

The climate in Madhya Pradesh is governed by a monsoon weather pattern. The distinct seasons are summer (March through May), winter (November through February), and the intervening rainy months of the southwest monsoon (June through September). The summer is hot, dry, and windy; in Bhopal, low temperatures average in the upper 70s F (about 25 °C), while high temperatures typically reach the low 100s F (about 40 °C). Winters are usually pleasant and dry, with daily temperatures normally rising from about 50° (about 10 °C) into the upper 70s F (about 25 °C). Temperatures during the monsoon season usually range from the low 70s F (low 20s C) to the upper 80s F (low 30s C).

The average annual rainfall is about 44 inches (1,100 mm). In general, precipitation decreases westward and northward, from 60 inches (1,500 mm) or more in the east to about 32 inches (800 mm) in the west. The Chambal valley in the north averages less than 30 inches (750 mm) of rainfall per year. Most parts of Madhya Pradesh receive almost all of their precipitation in the monsoon months; however, there is considerable rainfall over the northern part of the state in December and January.

Plant and animal life

In the early 21st century, official statistics indicated that nearly one-third of the state’s total area was forested, but satellite imagery revealed the proportion to be closer to one-fifth. An even smaller percentage of Madhya Pradesh consists of permanent pasture or other grazing land. The main forested areas include the Vindhya Range, the Kaimur Hills, the Satpura and Maikala ranges, and the Baghelkhand Plateau. Among the state’s most notable trees are teak and sal (Shorea robusta), both of which are valuable hardwoods; bamboo; salai (Boswellia serrata), which yields a resin used for incense and medicine; and tendu, the leaves of which are used for rolling bidis (Indian cigarettes).

The forests abound in large mammals, such as tigers, panthers, bears, gaurs (wild cattle), and many types of deer, including chital (spotted deer), sambar, blackbucks, and the rare barasingha (swamp deer). The woodlands also are home to many species of birds. Madhya Pradesh has a number of national parks and many wildlife sanctuaries, of which the best known are Kanha National Park, in the southeastern part of the state, for the barasingha; Bandhavgarh National Park, in the east, for the endangered white tiger; and Shivpuri (Madhav) National Park, in the north, where there is a bird sanctuary. The Kanha National Park has a sanctuary for tigers, and the National Chambal Sanctuary (administered jointly with Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh), in the northwest, has been established for the conservation of (freshwater) Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica), as well as crocodiles, gavials (crocodile-like reptiles), and various large terrestrial animals.

People

Population composition

About one-fifth of the people in Madhya Pradesh are officially classified as members of Scheduled Tribes (a category embracing indigenous peoples who fall outside the predominant Indian social hierarchy). Among the most prominent of these tribes are the Bhil, Baiga, Gond, Korku, Kol, Kamar, and Maria. Non-Scheduled peoples, who hold a higher status within the Indian social system, make up most of the remaining four-fifths of the state’s population.

Hindi, the official state language, is also the language most widely spoken in Madhya Pradesh. Eastern Hindi dialects, represented by Bagheli and Awadhi, are spoken in the southern and eastern parts of the state and in the upper Narmada River valley. Bundeli, a Western Hindi dialect, is spoken in the central and northwestern districts of Madhya Pradesh; Malvi, recognized by some as a Western Hindi dialect as well, is the speech of western Madhya Pradesh.

The second most important language in terms of the number of speakers is Marathi. Urdu, Oriya, Gujarati, and Punjabi are each spoken by sizable numbers. Also spoken are Telugu, Bengali, Tamil, and Malayalam. The Bhil speak Bhili, and the Gond speak Gondi.

Most of the people are Hindus. There are, however, significant minorities of Muslims, Jains, Christians, and Buddhists. There is also a small Sikh population.

Settlement patterns

Roughly three-fourths of the population of Madhya Pradesh is rural, but the distribution of this population is very uneven. Densely populated rural regions are confined largely to the river valleys—the upper Wainganga, the lower Chambal, and the Narmada—and to scattered patches on the Malwa Plateau in western Madhya Pradesh. The largest urban areas are Bhopal, in west-central Madhya Pradesh; Indore, in the west; and Jabalpur (Jubbulpore), in the east-central region. Other major cities include Gwalior, in the north, Ujjain, in the west, and Sagar (Saugor), in the central part of the state.

Economy

Agriculture

Agriculture is the basis of Madhya Pradesh’s economy. Less than half of the land area is cultivable, however, and its distribution is quite uneven because of variations in topography, rainfall, and soils. The main cultivated areas are found in the Chambal River valley and on the Malwa and Rewa plateaus. The Narmada valley, covered with river-borne alluvium, is another fertile region.

Agriculture in Madhya Pradesh is characterized by low productivity and the use of nonmechanized methods of cultivation. Because only a portion of the sown area is irrigated, the state’s agriculture has remained heavily dependent on rainfall; some regions often suffer from drought. Irrigation in Madhya Pradesh is carried out primarily by means of canals, wells, and tanks (village lakes or ponds).

The most important crops are wheat, sorghum (jowar), corn (maize), rice, and pulses (legumes such as peas, beans, or lentils). Rice is grown principally in the east, where there is more rainfall, while in central and western Madhya Pradesh wheat and sorghum are more important. The state is one of the largest producers of soybeans in India. Other crops include linseed, sesame, sugarcane, and cotton, as well as various millets, which are grown in hilly areas.

Livestock and poultry farming also are prominent in Madhya Pradesh. The state contains a significant portion of the country’s livestock—cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, and pigs. In addition, the state’s many rivers, canals, ponds, and reservoirs support a fisheries industry.

Resources and power

Madhya Pradesh is rich in minerals, though these resources have yet to be fully exploited. There are large reserves of coal and important deposits of iron ore, manganese ore, bauxite, limestone, dolomite, copper, fireclay, and kaolin (china clay). At Panna, in the northeast, there are diamond reserves.

The state is well endowed with hydroelectric power potential, and a number of hydroelectric projects have been developed jointly with neighbouring states. Madhya Pradesh also draws a portion of its power from several thermal stations located within the state. Most of these thermal plants are coal-fired.

Manufacturing

Overall, Madhya Pradesh has remained an industrially underdeveloped state. However, there are several centres of large- and medium-scale manufacturing, most notably in Indore, Gwalior, Bhopal, and Jabalpur, where industrial estates have been established as part of planned development. The principal government-sponsored industries include paper milling, cement production, and the manufacture of heavy electrical items, microelectronics, and optical fibres. Cement works and paper mills also have been established in the private sector, as have facilities for the production of sugar, textiles (cotton, wool, silk, and jute), lumber, flour, and various seed and vegetable oils. Other products of Madhya Pradesh include fertilizer, synthetic fibres, and chemicals.

Of the state’s small-scale enterprises, the hand-loom industry has flourished, with saris (garments worn by Indian women) made in Chanderi, gold and silver thread embroidery produced in Bhopal, and carpets woven in Gwalior. The artisans of Gwalior also produce handmade pottery. Jabalpur and Sagar are well-known centres for the manufacture of bidis (hand-rolled cigarettes).

Transportation

In comparison with most other Indian states, Madhya Pradesh has a somewhat less developed infrastructure and communication network. Although served by several national highways, the state has a low density of roads, especially in remote rural areas. However, the construction of bridges across the Narmada and other rivers has greatly helped the development of all-weather traffic routes. The main railroads that pass through the state were originally laid down to connect the ports of Chennai (Madras), Mumbai (Bombay), and Kolkata (Calcutta) with their hinterlands. Important railway junctions include Bhopal, Ratlam, Khandwa, and Katni. Airports at Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur, and Khajuraho offer domestic service.

Government and society

Constitutional framework

The structure of the government of Madhya Pradesh, like that of most other states of India, is determined by the national constitution of 1950. The head of state is the governor, who is appointed by the president of India. The governor is aided and advised by the Council of Ministers, which is headed by a chief minister and is responsible to the elected, unicameral Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). Madhya Pradesh has High Court benches at Indore, Gwalior, and Jabalpur, from which appeals can be made to the Supreme Court of India. Lower courts include district courts and family courts.

At the local level, the state is divided administratively into a number of divisions, which in turn are subdivided into numerous districts. Each division is headed by a commissioner and each district by a collector. The collector exercises both executive and magisterial power. Since 1962 the lowest level of local administration has been entrusted to village panchayats (village councils). In addition, official grievance-redressal committees help to solve local problems.

Health and welfare

Every district in Madhya Pradesh has at least one hospital, typically in an urban centre, and hundreds of community and primary health centres and subcentres spread across the rural areas. The state also has several eye hospitals, mental hospitals, and other specialized facilities for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis, venereal disease, and rabies, which, along with filariasis and leprosy, have remained major health concerns. Gwalior has a cancer research centre. Malaria, which was formerly endemic throughout Madhya Pradesh, has been virtually eradicated.

The government has implemented several social welfare programs, including adult literacy classes and various schemes directed toward the special problems of rural youths, the Scheduled Tribes, and members of other traditionally marginalizedcommunities. There are also a number of programs for women and girls, which include informal social service clubs called mahila mandals, schemes for helping rural women with problems of motherhood, and programs that make education available to girls from economically disadvantaged families. Grants-in-aid are given to social welfare and physical welfare institutions, while the government operates leprosy clinics, as well as homes for the impoverished or otherwise needy citizens.

Education

Roughly two-thirds of the state’s population is literate. There are schools for primary, middle, and high school education, as well as specialized schools for polytechnics, industrial arts, and crafts. Madhya Pradesh has a number of state universities; among these, the Dr. Harisingh Gour University (1946; formerly University of Saugar), located at Sagar, and Vikram University (1957), in Ujjain, are the oldest and best-known, while the music school at Khairagarh is one of the finest in India. Jabalpur has an agricultural university, and there is an institute of journalism and public relations in Bhopal.

History

Rock paintings and stone and metal implements found in the rivers, valleys, and other areas of Madhya Pradesh indicate that the area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. One of the earliest kingdoms known to have existed in the region was Avanti, with its capital at Ujjain. Located in the western part of present-day Madhya Pradesh, this state was part of the Mauryan empire (4th–3rd century bce) and was later known as Malwa. Attracted by the region’s fertile black soils, settlers from different parts of India migrated to Malwa via three important migratory routes—from the western coast, from the Deccan plateau, and from the ancient city of Shravasti and its surrounding territory in the north.

Dynastic rule

Among the various dynasties that ruled part or all of Madhya Pradesh between the 2nd century bce and the end of the 10th century ce were the Shungas (c. 185–c. 73 bce), who ruled in eastern Malwa, the Satavahanas (1st or 3rd century bce–3rd century ce), the Shakas (2nd–4th century ce), and the Nagas (2nd–4th century ce). The whole of Madhya Pradesh lying north of the Narmada River formed part of the Gupta empire (4th–5th century ce) and was the scene of a power struggle against the nomadic Hephthalites (Hunas) and the Kalachuris, the latter of whom occupied part of Malwa but only for a brief period. Yashodharman was the Malwan king who defeated the Hephthalites in the 6th century. During the first part of the 7th century, Malwa was annexed by the emperor of northern India, Harsha (Harahavardhana).

By the 10th century the Kalachuris had risen again to occupy eastern Madhya Pradesh, including the Narmada valley; their contemporaries were the Paramaras of Dhar in what is now the western region, the Kachwahas of Gwalior in the north, and the Chandelas of Khajuraho, about 100 miles (160 km) southeast of Jhansi. Later the Tomaras ruled at Gwalior, and the tribal Gonds ruled over several districts.

Muslim and British rule

Muslim invasion of the area began in the 11th century. The Hindu domains of Gwalior were incorporated into the Delhi sultanate in 1231 by the sultan Iltutmish. Later, in the early 14th century, the Khaljī sultans of Delhi overran Malwa, which was subsequently annexed into the Mughal Empire by Akbar (ruled 1556–1605), the greatest of the Mughal emperors. Maratha power extended into Malwa at the beginning of the 18th century, and a large part of what is now Madhya Pradesh had come under the control of an alliance of Maratha rulers—the Maratha confederacy—by 1760. With the defeat of the peshwas (hereditary Maratha chief ministers who centralized Maratha rule) in 1761, the Sindhiadynasty of Marathas was established at Gwalior in the north and the Holkar dynasty, also Maratha, at Indore in the southwest.

In the early 19th century the area became increasingly agitated as Pindari robber bands, composed of horsemen formerly attached to armies of Maratha chiefs, began to raid towns and villages from their hideouts in central India. The Pindaris, who received the tacit protection of the Sindhia and Holkar dynasties, had formed these autonomous bands beginning in the late 18th century, when the Maratha confederacy was weakening from internal dissension and from the growing military presence of the British. By 1818 British armies were able to suppress not only the Pindaris but also the various Maratha dynasties. That year the Nerbudda (now Narmada) River and Saugor (now Sagar) territories, containing much of northern Madhya Pradesh (including Gwalior and Indore of the Sindhia and Holkar dynasties), were ceded to the emerging British Empire.

During the next 40 years the British consolidated their control over the area. In the early 1830s British armies were required to suppress the thugs (Hindi: thag), a fraternity of assassins and plunderers (dating from at least the 14th century) who were roaming across central India. By 1854 all of Madhya Pradesh had fallen under British control. The present borders began to take shape in 1861, when the Sagar and Narmada territories and the Nagpur plain to the south were merged to create the Central Provinces. In 1903, with the addition of the Muslim territory of Berar, the area was renamed the Central Provinces and Berar. This administrative unit, however, did not include those parts of the north and west of the present state (Malwa, Bundelkhand, and Baghelkhand) that from 1854 formed sections of the Central India Agency. The Muslim state of Bhopal, situated between the Central India Agency and the Central Provinces and Berar, remained a protectorate of the British.

Nagarajan Panchapagesan AyyarSaraswati Raju

Madhya Pradesh since Indian independence

When India became independent in 1947, the new states of Madhya Bharat and Vindhya Pradesh were carved out of the old Central India Agency. Three years later, in 1950, the Central Provinces and Berar was renamed Madhya Pradesh. With the States Reorganization Act of 1956, Madhya Pradesh was redistributed along linguistic lines. The act transferred the southern Marathi-speaking districts of Madhya Pradesh to the Bombay state (now in Maharashtra) and merged several Hindi-speaking areas—the states of Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh, as well as most of Madhya Bharat—with Madhya Pradesh. In 2000 its eastern provinces became the state of Chhattisgarh.

States Reorganisation Act, 1956
Enacted byParliament of India
Date enacted1956
Status: In force

Part of a series on the

History of India

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.[1]

Although additional changes to India's state boundaries have been made since 1956, the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 remains the single most extensive change in state boundaries since the independence of India in 1947.

The Act came into effect at the same time as the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956,[2] which (among other things) restructured the constitutional framework for India's existing states and the requirements to pass the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 under the provisions of Part I of the Constitution of India, Articles 3 & 4.

Political integration after independence and the Constitution of 1950[edit]

Main article: Political integration of India

The British Indian Empire, which included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, was divided into two types of territories: the Provinces of British India, which were governed directly by British officials responsible to the Governor-General of India; and princely states, under the rule of local hereditary rulers who recognised British suzerainty in return for local autonomy, in most cases as established by treaty. As a result of the reforms of the early 20th century, most of the British provinces had directly elected legislatures as well as governors, although some of the smaller provinces were governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the Governor-General. Major reforms put forward by the British in the 1930s also recognised the principle of federalism, which was carried forward into the governance of independent India.

On 15 August 1947, British India was granted independence as the separate dominions of India and Pakistan. The British dissolved their treaty relations with more than five hundred princely states, who were encouraged to accede to either India or Pakistan, while under no compulsion to do so. Most of the states acceded to India, and a few to Pakistan. Bhutan, Hyderabad and Kashmir opted for independence, although the armed intervention of India conquered Hyderabad and brought it into the Indian Union.

Between 1947 and about 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The Government of India Act 1935 remained the constitutional law of India pending adoption of a new Constitution.

The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[3] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states and a class of territories:

  • Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), Madras, Orissa, Punjab (formerly East Punjab), Uttar Pradesh (formerly the United Provinces), and West Bengal.
  • Part B states, which were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state, and an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India. The eight Part B states were Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), Rajasthan, Saurashtra, and Travancore-Cochin.
  • Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The ten Part C states were Ajmer, Bhopal, Bilaspur, Coorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Cutch, Manipur, Tripura, and Vindhya Pradesh.
  • The sole Part D territory[4] was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government.

The movement for linguistic states[edit]

The demand for states on linguistic basis was developed even before India achieved independence from British rule. In 1895, a first-of-its-kind linguistic movement started in what is now Odisha. The movement got intensified in later years with the demand for a separate Orissa Province to be formed by bifurcating the existing Bihar and Orissa Province.[5][6] Due to the efforts of Madhusudan Das, the Father of Oriya nationalism, the movement eventually bore fruit in 1936, when Orissa Province became the first Indian state (pre-independence) organized on a linguistic basis.

The post-independence period saw the ascent of political movements for the creation of new states developed on linguistic lines. The movement to create a Telugu-speaking state out of the northern portion of Madras State gathered strength in the years after independence, and in 1953, the 16 northern, Telugu-speaking districts of Madras State became the new State of Andhra.It was after the hunger strike of Potti Sriramalu.

Other small changes were made to state boundaries during the 1950-1956 period. The small state of Bilaspur was merged with Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954, and Chandernagore, a former enclave of French India, was incorporated into West Bengal in 1955. But post independence, the first state created on a linguistic basis was Andhra in 1953, created out of the Telugu-speaking northern parts of Madras State.

The States Reorganisation Commission[edit]

Main article: States Reorganisation Commission

The States Reorganization Commission was preceded by the Linguistic Provinces Commission (aka Dhar Commission) in 1948 In December 1953, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appointed the States Reorganisation Commission to reorganise the Indian states. It was headed by the retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Fazal Ali. The other two members of the commission were H. N. Kunzru and K. M. Panikkar. The efforts of this commission were overseen by Govind Ballabh Pant, who served as the Home Minister from December 1954. The commission submitted a report on September 30, 1955, recommending the reorganisation of India's states. The Parliament debated the Commission report. Subsequently, bills making changes to the constitution and reorganising the states were passed.[7]

Related changes by other legislation[edit]

The States Reorganisation Act was enacted on 31 August 1956. Before it came into effect on 1 November, an important amendment was made to the Constitution of India. Under the Seventh Amendment, the existing distinction among Part A, Part B, Part C, and Part D states was abolished. The distinction between Part A and Part B states was removed, becoming known simply as "states". A new type of entity, the Union Territory, replaced the classification as a Part C or Part D state.

A further Act also came into effect on 1 November, transferring certain territories from Bihar to West Bengal.[8]

Effect of the changes[edit]

The following list sets out the states and union territories of India as reorganised on 1 November 1956:

States[edit]

  1. Andhra Pradesh: formed by the merger of Andhra State (1953-56) with the Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State (1948–56).
  2. Assam: No change of boundary in 1956.
  3. Bihar: reduced slightly by the transfer of minor territories to West Bengal.
  4. Bombay State: the state was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. The southernmost districts of the Bombay Presidency were transferred to Mysore State.
  5. Jammu and Kashmir: No change of boundary in 1956.
  6. Kerala: formed by the merger of Travancore-Cochin state with the Malabar district and Kasaragod taluk of South Canara district of the Madras Presidency. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin, Kanyakumari district was transferred to Madras State.
  7. Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal State were merged into Madhya Pradesh; the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division were transferred to Bombay State.
  8. Madras State: Malabar District was transferred to the new state of Kerala, and a new union territory, Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands, was created. The southern part of Travancore-Cochin, Kanyakumari district was added to the state.
  9. Mysore State: enlarged by the addition of Coorg State and the Kannada speaking districts from western Madras Presidency, southern Bombay Presidency and western Hyderabad State.
  10. Orissa: No change of boundary in 1956.
  11. Punjab: enlarged by addition of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union.
  12. Rajasthan: enlarged by the addition of Ajmer state and parts of Bombay and Madhya Bharat states.
  13. Uttar Pradesh: No change of boundary in 1956.
  14. West Bengal: enlarged by addition of minor territory previously forming part of Bihar.

Union territories[edit]

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Delhi
  3. Manipur
  4. Tripura
  5. Himachal Pradesh
  6. Laccadive, Minicoy & Amindivi Islands
  7. Puducherry

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Indian legislation

Consumer
Corruption
Criminal
Education
Environment
Financial
  • Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits and services) Act, 2016
  • Banking Regulation Act, 1949
  • Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act
  • Depositories Act
  • The Electricity Act, 2003
  • Expenditure Tax Act, 1987
  • Finance Act (India)
  • Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003
  • Foreign Contribution Regulation Act
  • Foreign Exchange Management Act
  • Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
  • Government Securities Act, 2006
  • Indian Contract Act, 1872
  • Indian Stamp Act, 1899
  • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016
  • Insurance Act, 1938
  • Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881
  • Securities Laws (Amendment) Act, 2014
  • Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002
  • The Competition Act, 2002
  • The High Denomination Bank Notes (Demonetisation) Act, 1978
  • The Income-tax Act, 1961
  • Transfer of Property Act 1882
  • Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, 1976
Healthcare
Labour
Personal
Social
State Laws
State Reorganisation
Terrorism
Transportation
Organisation / Body
Repeal
Other
  • All India Services Act, 1951
  • Delimitation Act
  • Enemy Property Act, 1968
  • Information Technology Act, 2000
  • Nuclear Liability Act
  • Official Secrets Act (India)
  • Representation of the People Act, 1951
  • Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
  • Right to Information Act, 2005
  • State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005
  • The Foreigners Act, 1946
Pre-Independence
Post-Independence
Proposed
Lapsed
Administrative divisions of India in 1951

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