Click here to toggle editing of individual sections of the page (if possible). Watch headings for an "edit" link when available.
Append content without editing the whole page source.
Check out how this page has evolved in the past.
If you want to discuss contents of this page - this is the easiest way to do it.
View and manage file attachments for this page.
A few useful tools to manage this Site.
See pages that link to and include this page.
Change the name (also URL address, possibly the category) of the page.
View wiki source for this page without editing.
View/set parent page (used for creating breadcrumbs and structured layout).
Notify administrators if there is objectionable content in this page.
Something does not work as expected? Find out what you can do.
General Wikidot.com documentation and help section.
Wikidot.com Terms of Service - what you can, what you should not etc.
Adding Information and Examples
for example / for instance
Use these words to give one example of the idea you are talking about. Both of these expressions can go at the beginning or the end of a sentence.
- There are a number of problems in this school. For example, many of the classrooms don’t have audiovisual equipment.
- She has a lot of good ideas for our business – opening an online store, for instance.
Written English: i.e. and e.g
In written English, we can use i.e. to give further explanation or clarification; it means “that is” or “in other words.”
- Our last marketing campaign failed (i.e. we spent $50,000 and didn’t make many sales).
We can use e.g. to give examples; it means “for example”
- I enjoy radical sports (e.g. rock climbing, hang gliding, and windsurfing).
In formal writing, these expressions always appear inside parentheses.
namely / such as
There is a difference between namely and such as.
Namely is followed by ALLof the examples you referred to, but such as gives only one or some of the examples, not all of them.
- A few of the students – namely Brian, Thomas, and Jack – failed the course.
- A few of the students, such as Brian, failed the course.
also / too
Also can go in the middle of a sentence, whereas too is typically used at the end.
- We did a lot of sightseeing on our vacation. We also bought a number of souvenirs.
- We did a lot of sightseeing on our vacation. We bought a number of souvenirs, too.
as well / as well as
As well goes at the end of the sentence (similarly to too).
As well as must be followed by another word.
- She’s not only extremely successful, she’s beautiful as well.
- She’s beautiful as well as being extremely successful.
in addition / moreover / furthermore
These linking words are usually used at the beginning of a sentence to add another idea or further develop the previous point.
- People who exercise regularly have more energy during the day and sleep better at night. In addition, they tend to live longer.
- Construction on the new subway has been delayed for months due to budget shortfalls. Moreover, the workers are threatening to go on strike.
- Our sales are expected to rise 30% in the next year. Furthermore, purchase of new equipment will help cut manufacturing costs and increase profits.
Note: These expressions are more formal English. In informal spoken English, we usually use these expressions instead:
- what’s more
Organizing and Ordering Information
Firstly / Secondly
When you are going to make a series of points, you can use firstly and secondly for the first and second points. After that, you can use “The third point,” “The fourth point,” etc. or “in addition.”
Lastly / Finally
For your final point, you can begin the sentence with lastly or finally. These words show your audience that you are almost finished.
the former / the latter
You can use these words to refer back to two examples previously mentioned:
- Our company has two factories: one in Detroit and one in Atlanta. The former is operating at 95% capacity and the latter at 65%.
In this case, “the former” = the factory in Detroit, and “the latter” = the factory in Atlanta.
Here are some English phrases you can use to give a summary of the information you have already said or written. In general, these phrases go at the beginning of the sentence and are followed by a comma.
- In short
- In summary
- To summarize
- In conclusion
- In a nutshell