Rabindranath Tagore is today more than a legend. He is, in fact, an intrinsic part of the very fabric of the Bengali identity, representative of the Bengali Renaissance and a creative genius, who managed to powerfully connect diverse cultures into a formidable humanizing force. Throughout his long and fruitful life, he engaged himself in virtually every aspect of living and touched it with his own spirit of rejuvenation.
Art, dance, literature, music, drama, education, rural development, social resurgence and a plethora of other areas were redefined by his contributions…making him as much a guiding star of Bengal as the creative voice of an entire nation – torn and subdued as it was by the inclemency of the times.
A little about him
Born on the 7th of May 1861 into an aristocratic family in Calcutta, Rabindranath Tagore grew up in a household that was free from want. His family’s ‘business empire’ (if one can use such a loosely descriptive term) had been initiated by an ancestor, Panchanan Kushari, belonging to the Khulna district, which is now in Bangladesh.
Fourteenth of fifteen children, Rabindranath grew up in a sprawling family home in north Calcutta, in an atmosphere of culture, active social life, and surging nationalism.
He started doing business with the East India Company and moved to Calcutta. Being a Brahmin, he was referred to as ‘Thakur’. In time, and through mispronunciation, it became ‘Tagore’ – a name that was adopted without much ado. Like most young people of his age and status, he was kept mostly indoors and nurtured at home, inadvertently encouraging him to become increasingly reflective. Perhaps this, coupled with his difficulty in adjusting to school life when he was finally sent to school, added up to his reluctance to accept the tedium of following rigid methods of instruction.
When his mother passed away, he ceased attending school and started studying under private tutors at home. Among the subjects he studied were Anthropology, Science, Sanskrit, English, Bengali Literature, Painting, and Music. Apparently, he was also trained in wrestling and gymnastics.
Starting early, very early.
By the time he was eight, it was apparent that he was destined to be a poet. In fact, his first poem appeared a couple of years later in the 1874 issue of Tattva Bodini Patrika. Other poems followed in print. But, in 1878, before he could decide what he wanted to do with his own life, he was shunted off to England in the hope that he would finally study law there.
However, he was not able to complete school and returned to India after just eighteen months. He had, in that time, managed to be trained in western classical music and study literature. In 1883, he was married to Bhabatarini Devi (whose name was changed to Mrinalini). Immediately after that, she was packed off to Loreto school to be ‘properly educated’. Fortunately, the poet did not get bogged down by the sheer drudgery of his family commitments and managed to find enough time to write.
This was when his first book, ‘Sandhya Sangeet’ was published and it was praised by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, who apparently predicted that he would flower into a great poet. Then followed another brief trip to England and yet another family responsibility placed on his shoulders. His father sent him to Silaidaha to look after the family estates. There, his life and writing took a dramatic turn when he was faced with rural suffering.
The abject poverty and misery of the people he encountered there affected him. Until then, much of his writing had been predominantly imaginative and not necessarily rooted in the everyday experiences of survival. This raw experience of ‘low living’ inspired his volume of short stories ‘Galpaguchha’. Other work followed swiftly.
The peoples’ man
Rabindranath then moved beyond creative responses towards more social ones. He started a small domestic school in Silaidaha and when he moved to Santiniketan he re-established it there. Of course, this time in a new form. It was a sort of ‘ascetic boarding school’ based on the ideals of the Vedic education system. This was not to last too long as financial problems began arriving one after another, attended by family issues and later even bereavement. However, he labored on, widening the scope of his original ‘Vedic school’ into a much broader-based socio-cultural institution.
Interestingly, the place where Santiniketan stood was once a deserted plain. Debendranath had come upon it quite by accident when he was on one of his ‘getaway trips’ northwards. Lying just outside the town of Bolpur, the land seemed to be barren and unproductive. Nevertheless, it offered the ‘world-weary’ Bengali businessman peace and tranquility.
The rediscovery and promotion of this spirit contributed to the emergence of a truly Bengali vision of aesthetics and values….the folk finally marrying the so-called upper or higher Sanskrit traditions. Bengal found itself just in the same way that Ireland did – by uncovering and celebrating its indigenous traditions.
His view on Education
With Rabindranath Tagore at the epicenter of the movement, Santiniketan became the nourishing environment in which it was possible to educate those who would keep the movement alive. The institution set the pace for a new approach to the educating experience.
The educational institution, therefore, which I have in mind has primarily for its object the constant pursuit of truth, from which the imparting of truth naturally follows. It must not be a dead cage in which living minds are fed with food artificially prepared. It should be an open house in which students and teachers are at one. They must live their complete life together, dominated by a common aspiration for truth and a need of sharing all the delights of culture…For our Universities, we must claim, not labeled packages of truth and authorized agents to distribute them, but the truth in its living association with her lovers and seekers and discoverers.
His belief in the humanizing power of education lead him to write,
We have come to this world to accept it, not merely to know it. We may become powerful by knowledge, but we attain fullness by sympathy. The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with entire existence.
There is, in all his creative and reflective writing, an acute awareness of the natural world around him. Nature, according to him, encompasses all sentient beings…not as an umbrella does but in a deeply connected way. The spirit of Nature and all creation enlivens us. His poem sequence, The Geetanjali, eloquently expresses this, seamlessly creating a beautiful tapestry of image and sound, revealing the oneness of creation. A tireless traveler, unofficial cultural ambassador for the nation of humanity and spokesperson of universal oneness, Rabindranath came to be respected as perhaps the most significant Indian of his times – a visionary and creative genius.
Neither the Nobel Prize for Literature nor the Doctorates that were bestowed on Tagore affected his dedication to his humanizing mission. In fact, so upset was he about the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre that he returned the Knighthood that the Empire had bestowed on him.
The Renaissance Man
Tagore lived through modern history’s most devastating and yet exciting times and managed, however much he was involved with life, to continue to explore the unchartered territories of his imagination. After having worked in virtually all creative mediums, he came late in life to work in line and form…he sketched, drew and painted.
In fact, it all started when Tagore began reacting to erasure marks he had made on his manuscripts. He began ‘decorating’ them and creating patterns with them. Sometimes they would become flowing ribbons; at other times, birds and animals. This led him on to start drawing and painting. “My pictures are my versification in lines. If by chance they are entitled to claim recognition, it must be primarily for some rhythmic significance of an idea or representation of a fact.” And so he continued and evolved as a painter, emerging in the glow of his life – the complete artist, the complete man, the Renaissance Man.
Today, Santiniketan remains, opening its doors to the world, providing a space and an atmosphere of learning and discovery. Though the Master has gone, his presence remains in the creative and artistic expression of students and practicing aesthetes at the institute. The creator of plays, poems, stories, dance, and music is gone, but his living legacy remains. Rabindranath Tagore has become his people. Alive in the rhythms of colour and sound, form and word.Writer- Randhir Khare Photographs- Susan Bullough Khare Copy Editor- Ankita Badoni, Alice Agarwal
August 25, 2014
Rebecca Lindsey, Visiting Committee Member, Department of Musical Instruments and Department of Islamic Art; and Allen Roda, Former Jane and Morgan Whitney Research Fellow, Department of Musical Instruments
Raja Sir Sourindro Mohun Tagore, from the catalogue of the Boston Exhibition of 1883
Among the more distinguished benefactors of the Museum's collection of musical instruments was Raja Sir Sourindro Mohun Tagore (1840–1914), a leading figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the late nineteenth century, as well as an educator, patron of music, and musicologist. Tagore was born in 1840 in Calcutta, then the capital of British India, to a Brahmin family—wealthy merchants with lands formerly owned by ruling aristocrats, who were fluent in English and conversant with Western European knowledge. The British often conferred the aristocratic title of Raja on prominent citizens; Tagore's brother inherited the senior title Maharaja, and, in 1880, Tagore himself was titled Raja, though his family had no political authority.
Tagore attended the European-model Hindu College in Calcutta and developed an interest in music while very young. He published his first book at the age of fifteen, wrote more than forty works on music and musical instruments, developed a notation system for Hindustani music, and later became a leading authority on the theory of what he called "Sanskrit music." A true advocate for music, Tagore was a pioneer in evolving the art form's perception as low-class entertainment and making it a respectable pastime for the elite.
Tagore's European-style orchestra, first established in 1875 when the Prince of Wales visited India. For the orchestra, Tagore used both standard Indian instruments—like the pakhāvaj drum in the center and the tāmbūra on the far right—and instruments modified to incorporate both Western and Indian traditions such as the various sizes of esrāj, comparable to the cello and double bass of Western orchestras.
A student of both Western and traditional Indian musical forms, Tagore worked to integrate the two, notably at the Bengal Music School and Bengal Academy of Music, both of which he founded. He formed Calcutta's first "orchestra" (distinct from military bands, which had long existed in British India), and for it developed hybrid Indian/Western instruments which he believed would help to unify and preserve the best of both Indian and Western musical practices. Tagore's output is particularly valuable due of their comprehensive, catalogue-like scope: for example, even in his brief monograph entitled "Short Notices of Hindu Instruments," he identified sixty-five varieties of percussion instruments alone. Today he is best remembered for his tireless work to preserve and expand knowledge of the traditional instruments and musical forms of his native land.
To increase world appreciation of Indian music, Tagore cultivated a wide acquaintance with leading political and cultural institutions all over the world. Though he never left India (owing to a religious belief that overseas travel caused loss of caste), his network included presidents and kings from America, Asia, and Europe; and his work was recognized by honors and decorations throughout the world—from Venezuela, to the Kingdom of Hawaii, to China, the United States, and Persia. He was knighted by Queen Victoria and held honorary doctorates of music from Oxford University and Philadelphia University. Tagore's academic titles were the ones he valued most, and he even successfully petitioned the British government for the allowance to call himself "Doctor."
The Taus, also known as the Mayuri Veena, is one of the more spectacular items in the Tagore collection of musical instruments at the Met. The two names for the instrument come from the Persian and Hindi words for peacock, an auspicious animal often associated with the Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of wisdom, art, and music. Mayuri, 19th century. India. Wood, parchment, metal, feathers. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments, 1889 (89.4.163)
Tagore's stature and education put him in touch with ruling families and major centers of learning, worldwide. For many of these institutions—including Oxford (where the collection is now at the Pitt Rivers Museum), Brussels, Tokyo, Peking, and the Metropolitan Museum—he assembled collections of instruments and donated sets of his treatises on Indian music and musical instruments. Among the most notable was one sent in 1876 to King Leopold II of Belgium; it formed the nucleus of the Musée Instrumental du Conservatoire Royale de Musique, which immediately became, and remains, one of the world's best museum collections of instruments. Tagore also formed an instrument collection for his own country and donated it to what is now the Indian Museum of Kolkata. Perhaps more important were his comprehensive catalogues, which educated generations of students and scholars, including those at the Met.
Several of Tagore's entries from the 1883 Boston Exhibition catalogue, describing both traditional Indian instruments he had collected and donated, and instruments he had "invented."
Tagore's connections within the United States began in the 1870s. He entertained President Ulysses S. Grant at his Calcutta estate, Emerald Bower, and in 1879 sent a collection of Indian instruments to President Rutherford B. Hayes. In 1883 he was asked to serve as a Commissioner for India for the Foreign Exhibition in Boston. For the Boston Exhibition, Tagore made a collection of fifty musical instruments (as well as 150 books and other objects), which he specifically designated to be sent to the new Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. after the Boston Exhibition closed. The collection was transported from Boston in 1884 by Edwin H. Hawley, whose career at the Smithsonian lasted until his death in 1919. During most of that time he was a prolific correspondent and invaluable source of reference for the Metropolitan Museum's major musical instruments donor, Mary Elizabeth Brown. It may well have been Hawley who put the Brown family in touch with Tagore in 1888.
Many of the instruments in the Tagore collection feature the same painted gold-leaf pattern visible on this rudra veena. The rudra veena was the most popular solo stringed instrument of the Dhrupad genre of North Indian classical music. Mahati Vina, ca. 1885. India. Gourd, various materials. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments, 1889 (89.4.172)
The Brown family, through the family firm, Brown Brothers, and its Indian agent, had contacted Tagore in early 1888 to solicit his assistance in obtaining Indian instruments for their collection. Tagore promised his help and immediately sent copies of his books, although the thirty instruments he donated did not arrive at Brown Brothers until mid-1889—too late to be included in the catalogue, or in the first Brown donation to the Museum. However, William Adams Brown, Mary Elizabeth Brown's son who prepared the 1888 catalogue of the Crosby Brown Collection, acknowledged Tagore in the catalogue and referred to his gift of a "very beautiful and complete collection of Indian instruments." The Museum's annual report for 1889 lists as donations by Mrs. John Crosby Brown two collections of musical instruments: one was her original 278; the other was the Tagore collection, transferred to the Museum in October 1889. The same annual report lists the Tagore books and treatises as donations to the Museum library—important works that were frequently used and cited by curator Frances Morris, especially as she prepared the Museum's first catalogue of Asian musical instruments in 1901.
Tagore died in 1914. His dying wish was that his sitar be cremated with him on his funeral pyre.
South Asia Journal of South Asian Studies, N.S. Vol. 27, No. 3, Dec. 2004
Katz, Jonathan. "Raja Sir Sourindro Mohun Tagore (1840–1914)." Popular Music, Vol. 7, No. 2, May 1988, 220–221.
Tags:Crosby Brown Collection, India, North India