Arab-Israeli Conflict Thesis Statement

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Palestinian-Israeli Conflict Essay

Introduction:

The struggle between the Israelis and the Palestinians is one of the most enduring and explosive of all the world's conflicts.  It has its roots in the historic claim to the land which lies between the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan river.  For the Palestinians the last 100 years have brought colonization, expulsion and military occupation, followed by a long and difficult search for self-determination and for coexistence with the nation they hold responsible for their suffering and loss.  For the Jewish people of Israel, the return to the land of their forefathers after centuries of persecution around the world has not brought peace or security. They have faced many crises as their neighbors have sought to wipe their country off the map.  The purpose of this essay is to determine which group is the rightful occupants of the Holy Land.

Question:

  1. What determines land ownership in the case of Israel/Palestine?

  2. Does either group have a right to claim the land?

  3. Why or why not?

Process:

  1. I.Brainstorm

    1. A.Using notes, our text and all handouts, write down all information you can about the different claims to the Holy Land on the sheet provided

    2. B.Done in class 3/11

    3. C.10 points

  2. II.Thesis

    1. A.After examining the different cases, state your opinion on who has the best claim of ownership in the area

    2. B.Done in class 3/11

    3. C.10 points

  3. III.Document Analysis

    1. A.Using the analysis sheets provided, analyze the primary sources pertaining to claims on the Holy Land

    2. B.Due Monday 3/14

    3. C.20 points

  4. IV.Outline

    1. A.Using the outline packet, write an outline for the paper that provides your planned structure for the paper

    2. B.Due Tuesday 3/15

    3. C.20 points

  5. V.First Two Paragraphs

    1. A.Write the Introduction and First Body Paragraph of your paper

    2. B.Due Wednesday 3/16 for Block 2; Thursday 3/17 for Block 1

    3. C.20 points

  6. VI.Rough Draft

    1. A.Write a complete draft of your paper with all elements of the final draft

    2. B.Due Friday 3/18

    3. C.20 points

  7. VII. Peer Editing

    1. A.Using the peer editing sheets provided, edit at least two classmates’ papers

    2. B.Done in class 3/21

    3. C.10 points

  8. VIII. Final Draft

    1. A.Write a final draft that is:

      1. 1.3-5 pages long, typed in Times font, 12-point, double-spaced

    2. B.Due Thursday 3/23 for Bloc 2 and Friday 3/24 for Block1

    3. C.50 points

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Arab-Israeli Conflict Essay: Brainstorm and Thesis

Introduction:

We will be writing an essay in which you must state your belief and support that statement. 

Questions:

  1. What determines land ownership in the case of Israel/ Palestine?

  2. Does either group have a right to claim the land?

  3. Why or why not?

Step one: Brainstorming. Fill in BOTH sides of the chart.


Step Two : Writing your thesis.  Take a minute to evaluate your evidence.  Write a thesis which answers the essay question. The easiest way to write a thesis is to use wording from the actual question.

    1. Example thesis:

      1. Land ownership is determined by a people’s ability to gain and maintain control of the land; through that reasoning, the Israelis have a better claim of ownership on the Holy land because of their take over and control of the area.

Write your thesis here:

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Palestinian-Israeli Conflict Essay: Document Analysis

Instructions:

Analyze the following documents using the analysis sheets provided. Answer the questions as  thoroughly as possible.  Some questions may not be answered.

The document analysis sheet is linked below:

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/written_document_analysis_worksheet.pdf

Documents:

  1. Document A: The Sikes-Picot Agreement

  2. Document B: The Balfour Declaration

  3. Document C: Minutes from the meeting of the Eastern Committee of the British Parliament

  4. Document D: Churchill White Paper, 1922

  5. Document E: British White Paper, 1939

  6. Document F: United Nations Resolution, 1948

  7. Document G: Excerpt from The Lemon Tree, Palestinian Bashir’s visit to his home prior to Israeli independence

  8. Document H: Map of the Partition of Palestine, 1948

  9. Document I: Strangers in the House

  10. Document J:  Statement by Nasser

Document A

The Sykes-Picot Agreement : 1916

It is accordingly understood between the French and British governments:

That France and Great Britain are prepared to recognize and protect an independent Arab states or a confederation of Arab states (a) and (b) marked on the annexed map, under the suzerainty of an Arab chief. That in area (a) France, and in area (b) Great Britain, shall have priority of right of enterprise and local loans. That in area (a) France, and in area (b) Great Britain, shall alone supply advisers or foreign functionaries at the request of the Arab state or confederation of Arab states.

That in the blue area France, and in the red area Great Britain, shall be allowed to establish such direct or indirect administration or control as they desire and as they may think fit to arrange with the Arab state or confederation of Arab states.

That in the brown area there shall be established an international administration, the form of which is to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other allies, and the representatives of the Shereef of Mecca.

The Avalon Project, Yale University

Document B

This Letter, to Lord Rothschild, by the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, became known as the "Balfour Declaration". The letter was published a week later in The Times (London) of London.

Foreign Office
November 2nd, 1917
Dear Lord Rothschild:
I have much pleasure in conveying to you. on behalf of His Majesty's
Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:
His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge
of the Zionist Federation.

Yours,

Arthur James Balfour

Document  C     Extract fromMinutes of the Meeting of the Eastern Committee of the Cabinet (United Kingdom) of 5 December, 1918, in which Lord Curzon, the Foreign Secretary of the UK and  chairman of the committee, makes the following statement:

The Palestine position is this. If we deal with our commitments, there is first the general pledge to Hussein in October 1915, under which Palestine was included in the areas as to which Great Britain pledged itself that they should be Arab and independent in the future . . . Great Britain and France - Italy subsequently agreeing - committed themselves to an international administration of Palestine in consultation with Russia, who was an ally at that time . . . A new feature was brought into the case in November 1917, when Mr. Balfour, with the authority of the War Cabinet, issued his famous declaration to the Zionists that Palestine 'should be the national home of the Jewish people, but that nothing should be done - and this, of course, was a most important proviso - to prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine. Those, as far as I know, are the only actual engagements into which we entered with regard to Palestine.

Document  D    Extract fromthe British White Paper of June 3,1922 [also referred as the Churchill White Paper]:

[…] it is not the case, as has been represented by the Arab Delegation, that during the war His Majesty's Government gave an undertaking that an independent national government should be at once established in Palestine. This representation mainly rests upon a letter dated the 24th October, 1915, from Sir Henry McMahon, then His Majesty's High Commissioner in Egypt, to the Sharif of Mecca, now King Hussein of the Kingdom of the Hejaz. That letter is quoted as conveying the promise to the Sherif of Mecca to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs within the territories proposed by him. But this promise was given subject to a reservation made in the same letter, which excluded from its scope, among other territories, the portions of Syria lying to the west of the District of Damascus. This reservation has always been regarded by His Majesty's Government as covering the vilayet of Beirut and the independent Sanjak of Jerusalem. The whole of Palestine west of the Jordan was thus excluded from Sir. Henry McMahon's pledge.

Document  E     Extract fromthe British White Paper of May 17,1939

His Majesty's Government believe that the framers of the Mandate in which the Balfour Declaration was embodied could not have intended that Palestine should be converted into a Jewish State against the will of the Arab population of the country. [...] His Majesty's Government therefore now declare unequivocally that it is not part of their policy that Palestine should become a Jewish State. They would indeed regard it as contrary to their obligations to the Arabs under the Mandate, as well as to the assurances which have been given to the Arab people in the past, that the Arab population of Palestine should be made the subjects of a Jewish State against their will.

Document F

The resolution recommends that the United Kingdom (as mandatory power for Palestine) evacuate; armed forces should withdraw no later than August 1, 1948; independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem administered by the United Nations should come into existence;  the City of Jerusalem should preserve the interests of Christian, Jewish, and Muslim faiths.

UN General Assembly Resolution 181 (II), August, 1948

Document G     Extract fromthe Lemon Tree by journalist Sandy Tolan, Bloomsbury, 2007, p. 207. This excerpt is from a Palestinian, Bashir, who is visiting what was, prior to 1948, his family’s home, and is currently being lived in by a Jewish family.

We were exiled by force of arms.  We were exiled on foot.  We were exiled to take the earth as our bed. And the sky as a cover.  And to be fed from the crums to those among the governments and international organizations who imparted their charity.  We were exiled but we left our souls, our hopes, our childhood in Palestine.  We left our joys and sorrows.  We left them in every corner, and on every grain of sand in Palestine. We left them with each lemon fruit, with each olive.  We left them in the roses and flowers.  We left them in the flowering tree that stands with pride at the entrance of our house in al-Ramla.  We left them in the remains of our fathers and ancestors.  We left them as witnesses and history.  We left them, hoping to return

Document H: United Nations partition of Palestine, 1948


Document I

Arab Palestinians began to leave their homes in cities in December 1947. The number of Arab Palestinians leaving their homes increased to hundreds of thousands by May 1948. During the last week of April in 1948, as the fighting came closer to their home, the Palestinian family in this passage left Jaffa for Ramallah. On May 14, 1948, Israel was established. This new country included the city of Jaffa. Ramallah was in the West Bank that became part of Jordan.

. . I grew up hearing the description of my father’s last visit to Jaffa, and it has left an indelible [permanent] impression on me. My father’s entire holdings were in and around Jaffa, the products of his own hard work. His father had left him nothing. How difficult it must have been to bid all this farewell. The image of my father, his every step echoing in the empty streets of the deserted city, still haunts me. . . .He moved on to the marketplace, empty except for a few shops that had somehow remained open. He walked passed Hinn’s, his barbershop, and found it closed. The courthouse was closed, as were the clinics, the nurseries, the cafés, the cinema. The place was deserted, prepared to be captured. What have we done, he wondered. How could we have all left? . . . Source: Raja Shehadeh,Strangers in the House: Coming of Age in Occupied Palestine,Penguin Books

Document J

Statement by President Nasser to Members of the Egyptian National Assembly. May 29, 1967

Then came the events of 1956-the Suez battle. We all know what happened in 1956. When we rose to demand our rights, Britain, France and Israel opposed us, and we were faced with the tripartite aggression. We resisted, however, and proclaimed that we would fight to the last drop of our blood. God gave us success and God's victory was great…Preparations have already been made. We are now ready to confront Israel. They have claimed many things about the 1956 Suez war, but no one believed them after the secrets of the 1956 collusion were uncovered- that mean collusion in which Israel took part. Now we are ready for the confrontation. We are now ready to deal with the entire Palestine question.

The issue now at hand is not the Gulf of Aqaba, the Straits of Tiran, or the withdrawal of the UNEF, but the rights of the Palestine people. It is the aggression, which took place in Palestine in 1948 with the collaboration of Britain and the United States. It is the expulsion of the Arabs from Palestine, the usurpation of their rights, and the plunder of their property. It is the disavowal of all the UN resolutions in favour of the Palestinian people..

Document K

Excerpts from the Hamas Charter

"After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested the region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion, and so on. Their plan is embodied in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion", and their present conduct is the best proof of what we are saying."

"Israel will exist and will continue to exist until Islam will obliterate it, just as it obliterated others before it." (The Martyr, Imam Hassan al-Banna, of blessed memory).

"The Islamic Resistance Movement believes that the land of Palestine is an Islamic Waqf consecrated for future Muslim generations until Judgment Day. It, or any part of it, should not be squandered: it, or any part of it, should not be given up.

Document L

The Bible. Genesis 17: 3-8

Abram fell facedown, and God said to him, 4 “As for me, this is my covenant with you: You will be the father of many nations. 5 No longer will you be called Abram[a]; your name will be Abraham,[b] for I have made you a father of many nations. 6 I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. 7 I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you. 8 The whole land of Canaan, where you now reside as a foreigner, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God.”

Modern World History

Mr. Hanover

Arab-Israeli Conflict Essay: Outline Packet

Writing a paper should not be viewed as a one-step activity.  Rather, it should be a process that involves multiple steps that allow you to organize your thoughts in a way that helps you to write a clear, persuasive, and eloquent essay.

In this class, every time you write a paper, you will be asked to complete either an outline and/or a draft.  Both the outline and the draft will be handed in with the final draft for a grade.  I am not requiring you to do outlines and drafts to make your life miserable but rather to help you become a better writer. 

The structure of the essay is as follows:

Paragraph 1  (Introduction)

  1. The introduction should start broad and get more specific as it progresses. 

  2. The first thing you should do is to introduce the reader to the larger context of the essay.

    1. oThe first 1-2 sentences should contain background information (who, what, when, where, etc.)

    2. oFor example, if you are writing a paper on the Arab-Israeli Conflict, you need to provide some background; when it took place, who was involved, etc.  Do not dive right into the topic of the essay without giving the reader some sense of time and place (context).

  3. After you introduce the topic, you need to make the connection to your specific topic – transition from background information into what you will be writing about.

  1. The last sentence of the paragraph should contain a clear, concise thesis statement.

    1. oWhat is a thesis statement? 

      1. A thesis statement should illustrate an argument that you will prove over the course of the paper.

      2. A thesis statement should always contain brief mention of what the body of the paper will discuss in greater detail (i.e. it should summarize the topic sentences of the 3 body paragraphs.)

      3. If the question asks you to defend a particular point, the thesis statement will state the point as a fact and back it up with brief mention of 3 major reasons why it is true.  These reasons will then be the basis of the body of your paper.

Paragraph 2, 3, and 4  (Body Paragraph #1-3)

  1. Each body paragraph should start with a topic sentence to preview to the reader what the paragraph will discuss.

  1. Each body paragraph should contain three examples to support the specific point being addressed in the paragraph.

    1. oExamples should include quotations, facts, statistics, etc.

    2. oThis is where you will usually include quotations from texts and citations from readings and notes that you have.

  2. The body of your paper should be as specific as possible and should offer as clear and vivid illustrations as possible.

  3. The last sentence should not only bring the paragraph to a conclusion, but it should also serve as a transition into the next body paragraph (i.e. find a connection or relationship between the two paragraphs.)

Paragraph 5  (Conclusion)

  1. The conclusion should summarize the contents of the entire paper and should try and offer some additional insights (intelligent comments or observations) about the topic.

  2. Restate your argument – do not cut and paste the introduction verbatim or try to change one or two of the words from the introduction!

  3. Open the paper up.  It is here that you should try to do one of the following:

    1. oconnect your paper to the larger historical picture

    2. ostate its significance to the time period

    3. orelate it to later events or issues

    4. othink of other questions to ask (related to the topic)


What is the general topic of this essay?

What general information does the reader need about this topic?

(What is the topic being discussed?  What information is needed to give the reader enough background

to understand the topic?)

What will this essay explain and/or argue?

(What is your specific thesis?  Your thesis should contain the topics of your body paragraphs.)


What is the topic of this paragraph?

(What specific point will this paragraph illustrate with three examples?)

What are the three examples that illustrate the specific topic?

(What does each example show?)

[Summarize each example, and indicate citations of where the information is coming from,

including page numbers, etc.]

      1.)

      2.)

      3.)

What “signposts” help structure this paragraph?

(e.g.  First…, Next…, Finally…;  First of all…, In a later passage…, Finally…)

What statement wraps up this topic?

(What conclusion can be drawn from the examples from the examples in this paragraph?)

What phrase serves as a transition into the next paragraph?

(How does the topic of this paragraph connect to the topic of the following paragraph?


What is the topic of this paragraph?

(What specific point will this paragraph illustrate with three examples?)

What are the three examples that illustrate the specific topic?

(What does each example show?)

[Summarize each example, and indicate citations of where the information is coming from,

including page numbers, etc.]

      1.)

      2.)

      3.)

What “signposts” help structure this paragraph?

(e.g.  First…, Next…, Finally…;  First of all…, In a later passage…, Finally…)

What statement wraps up this topic?

(What conclusion can be drawn from the examples from the examples in this paragraph?)

What phrase serves as a transition into the next paragraph?

(How does the topic of this paragraph connect to the topic of the following paragraph?)


What is the topic of this paragraph?

(What specific point will this paragraph illustrate with three examples?)

What are the three examples that illustrate the specific topic?

(What does each example show?)

[Summarize each example, and indicate citations of where the information is coming from,

including page numbers, etc.]

      1.)

      2.)

      3.)

What “signposts” help structure this paragraph?

(e.g.  First…, Next…, Finally…;  First of all…, In a later passage…, Finally…)

What statement wraps up this topic?

(What conclusion can be drawn from the examples from the examples in this paragraph?)

What phrase serves as a transition into the next paragraph?

(How does the topic of this paragraph connect to the topic of the following paragraph?)


What phrase serves as a transition from the body of the paper?

What more can now be said about the ideas expressed in the thesis statement?

(Restate, in new terms, the thesis statement.  Then add further reflections.)

What thought-provoking statement concludes the essay?

(So what?  Why is the topic of this essay important?  How can you broaden the scope of your

discussion?  How does the topic of the essay relate to the larger historical picture?  How does it relate to

later events/issues?)



Transcript of The Arab Israeli Conflict

Abraham is tested by God.
1225 BC - after freeing his people, Moses recieves the Ten Commandments from God at Mt. Sinai in the Sinai Desert
1025-965 BC: The Kindgom of Israel is created under the leadership of Kings Saul, David and Solomon,
1725 BC: the Hebrews left their homeland due to famine and arrived to Egypt...only to become enslaved for the next 500 years.
1914 - 1918
WWI Breaks out across Europe
1920 -
Syria and Lebanon become French Mandates
Palestine becomes mandate of Britain
1920 -
Egypt is granted independence from Britain
1932 -
Iraq gains independence
from Britain
1939 - 1945
WWII breaks out across Europe
1945
the Arab League is formed
1946
The French vacate Syria and Lebanon
Jordan gains independance
1948 -
The State of Israel is declared
586 BC
Babylonians conquer the Hebrews, sparking the beginnings of the diaspora
4 AD: Birth of Jesus
70 AD -
the Romans conquer Israel...
Destroy the Temple. The Western Wall of the temple mount remained intact.
570
Muhammad is born
630-1280 - Arab control over Islam
Ottoman Control over Islam
the effects of Theodore Herzl's Zionist movement is felt in Palestine...to the tune of about 25,000 jewish residents
1897 -
the First Zionist congress is formed
1280 -
The Ottoman Empire emerges
1930s -
the rise of Nazi Germany
509-49 BC - Ancient Roman Republic
31 BC - 180 AD
Pax Romana
313 AD
Constantine recognizes Christianity
400 AD
Rome adopts Christianity
From Abraham’s son Isaac came the Jewish race, and from Abraham’s other son Ishmael came the Arabs.
The Problem of Palestine: Both Jews and Arabs claim the right to control and live in a small territory traditionally known as Palestine
The dilemma is that both groups have STRONG claims to the land. According to tradition: they have a common ancestor, Abraham.
The Jewish Claim: the Old testament is the story of the struggles of the Jews to survive and their longing for the promised land in Palestine. They settled there in about 1200 BC. Problems arose in 586 BC (Babylonians) and in 70 AD (Romans). In 135 AD, under the direction of the Romans...they were forbidden to assemble for prayer or visit Jerusalem again.
For the next 18 centuries they were a people without a homeland, dispersed throughout the world. (diaspora)
They never lost their identity or pride is Judaism. Their reoccuring goal was simple: “next year in Jerusalem”
The Arab Claim:
In the 7th century AD, Palestine was taken over by Arabs as they spread their Religion through the Middle East and North Africa
That is Where we will start...
Jerusalem, and more specifically, the Dome of the Rock became a sacred place for them.
2.) The strengthening and fostering of a “Jewish National sentiment and consciousness”
Theodore Herzl - the father of organized/political Zionism. He is the author of the book “The Jewish State”. This book helped unite the victims of the diaspora. It organized Zionism. His thesis was essentially, “due to the worldwide persecution of Jews, it is critical for the survival of this race to have a national home…for Jews…and only Jews”
An organized Zionist movement took shape, evidence by the Basel Declaration in 1897 at the first Zionist Congress.
A couple Basel Declaration goals:
1.) colonization of Palestine by Jews through the establishment of agricultural communities (Moshav & Kibbutz)
The Zionist movement was an effort to escape PERSECUTION a.k.a: Anti-semitism.
Jews were being persecuted against across the world from France (the "most liberal country in Europe"), Spain (Inquisition), Ukraine and Russia (pogroms)
DIASPORA: The settling of Jews outside of their homeland (Palestine/Judea/Israel)
Between 1880 and WWI, three million Jews fled from Eastern Europe in an effort to escape this violent persecution. Some went to Palestine, some went to America (500K immigrants)
Herzl's sentiments were fueled by The Dreyfus affair in France: Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French army, was accused of treason. Theodore Herzl took special exception to this as cries of “death to the Jews” echoed throughout the very liberal French lands.
WHY were they persecuted against?
1.) a reaction to the Jews referring to themselves as “The Chosen People”
2.) accusations of their involvement in the crucifixion of Jesus
3.) they became frequent scapegoats for every kind of shortcoming that arose in any country during the diaspora.
IMPORTANCE OF THE MIDDLE EAST IS REALIZED
WHY?
1.) European countries were becoming more involved in the area (Imperialsim)
2.) The Arabs were trying to free themselves from Turkish rule (Ottoman Empire)
3.) European and American Jews were buying up land and beginning to work to establish Jewish settlements in Palestine (Ottoman Territory) (Zionism)
British and French
“Footholds" in the lucrative Middle East.
Suez Canal
French merchants/traders in Syria
PALESTINE BETWEEN
THE WARS

but wait....
DURING THE WAR
The British had two main goals in WWI:
WIN the war
Increase their influence in the region after the war
“during the War, in an effort to achieve these goals, The British made promises that they either never intended to keep…or ones that were contradictory."
As for those regions lying within those frontiers wherein Great Britain is free to act without detriment to the interest of her ally, France, I am empowered in the name of the Government of Great Britain to give the following assurances and make the following reply to your letter:-

1. Subject to the above modifications, Great Britain is prepared to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs in all the regions within the limits demanded by the Sherif of Mecca.
2. Great Britain will guarantee the Holy Places against all external aggression and will recognise their inviolability.
3. When the situation admits, Great Britain will give to the Arabs her advice and will assist them to establish what may appear to be the most suitable forms of government in those various territories.
I am convinced that this declaration will assure you beyond all possible doubt of the sympathy of Great Britain towards the aspirations of her friends the Arabs and will result in a firm and lasting alliance, the immediate results of which will be the expulsion of the Turks from the Arab countries and the freeing of the Arab peoples from the Turkish yoke, which for so many years has pressed heavily upon them.
The Balfour Declaration
Foreign Office
November 2nd, 1917
Dear Lord Rothschild,
I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet.
"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."
I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.
Yours sincerely,
Arthur James Balfour
Promise 3
The Sykes-Picot Agreement
1916 - assuming the allied powers won WWI, the French and The British made a secret agreement which divided up much of the old Ottoman Empire:
Britain: Iraq, Palestine, Transjordan
France: Syria and Lebanon
Promise 1:
The Husayn-McMahon Letters
Letters between Sharif Husayn (Arab leader) and Sir Henry McMahon (British diplomat)
Promising the creation of an independent Arab Kingdom. They did this to gain Arab support.
Promise 2
The Balfour Declaration
A Declaration of intent from James Balfour: British Foreign secretary
It speaks for itself.
The "Thrice Promised Land"
British and French mandates followed the lines of the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
Creation of “New” countries or “Nations”: Iraq, Syria and Lebanon now existed…
END OF WWI
Ottoman Empire Collapsed, the Sultan agreed to give up all of his non-Turkish territory
Arab lands that had been part of the O.E. are under Allied occupation
League of Nations divided up the region into political units called “mandates”
MANDATE: an order giving the country the right to rule a territory until it was ready for independence
Arab revolts ensued across the region.
Creation of Saudi Arabia: the Arabian Kingdom. Persian Gulf to the Red Sea….but not Palestine as promised in the Husayn/McMahon letters.
In Palestine, the British ruled directly. They could not install an Arab king because of the promises made in the Balfour Declaration….and the other promise made with the French that resulted in a British Mandate
The birth of Middle Eastern Oil:
After WWI and more significantly, after the Industrial Revolution…the Middle East, long known for its importance as the hub of 3 Continents, the crossroads of the World, and the gateway to India…now had something even more valuable…OIL.
This increased the desire for European Countries to “increase their influence in the region”. (read: bleed the region dry of their precious natural resources)
Pipelines, railroads and ports were built. The British had direct/indirect control of the much of the Tigris Euphrates River valley and into the Arabian Peninsula.
In and around this time, we saw the birth of Standard Oil of California, The Texas Oil Company, and the Arabian-American Oil Company (aramco)
The Palestinian Arab claim:
We understand the horrors of the Holocaust, but why should we be punished for European anti-Semitic actions?
Their first order was to form the Arab League: an attempt at a unified Palestinian Arab leadership body. Arab leaders from Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen joined forces to form a political body designed to compete with the Zionist Organization.
Start of WWII: roughly 450K Jews in Palestine (about 30 percent of pop.)
British line of thinking:
We need support in WWII
The Jews are obviously not going to support the Nazis…
So we better do something to gain Arab support: the White Papers
The White Papers limited the number of Jewish immigrants into Palestine to 75K over the next 5 years. The Arabs saw this is a small victory. Little did they know.
Unfortunately, this document had no chance of holding up against the immigrants fleeing Nazi persecution.
By the end of WWII: The true horror of the Holocaust was realized…to the tune of 6 million Jewish murders (roughly 60% of Europe’s Jewish population).
1.5 of these murders were children.
The understandable worldwide sympathy that ensued increased the popularity of Zionism among Jews and non-Jews.
Harry S. Truman, President of the United States, urged European Jews to be admitted to Palestine.
Immigration increased, Violence ensued, and an exhausted Britain found it impossible to control the Arab/Jewish tensions in Palestine. They ended their Mandate over Palestine and turned over control of the land to the United Nations (League of Nations)
Official Mandate of Britain…which angered the Arabs…and the Balfour Declaration was fuel to the fire.
Immigration started…Zionism was working.
Palestinian-Arabs were working hard to limit this immigration
Violence in Palestine between the residents and the immigrants (Palestinian-Arabs and Jews).
The Arab High Committee formed to build a united front against Jewish Immigration into Palestine. What followed has been called by some as a “Civil War” between Jews and the Palestinian-Arabs.
Immigration intensified with increase in Jewish Persecution around the region (emergence of Nazi Germany)
National flag
National anthem
Jewish National Fund
Purchased land from the weak and feeble Ottomans who were desperate for money
The State of Israel was created; it’s right to exist was recognized at once by the US and Soviet Union.
The Arab countries recognized it in a different way…The day after Israel was created, Arab troops from Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq invaded.
Interesting Result…Israel won…and increased their land share from 56% to 77%
Hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refugees fled this new state arriving as refugees in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, giving Jews the population majority in what was once "Palestine"
War of Words:
Palestinian Arabs: “We were forced out of our land”
Jews: “they left on their own free will”
1956 - The Suez War
1967 - The Six-Day War
1973: The War of Yom Kippur
With Egypt defeated, Nasser resigned. Though his government and his people turned down his resignation, the loss of the war was a major personal defeat for him. This bold Israeli victory sent shockwaves throughout the Middle East
Jerusalem was now solely in the hands of the Jews
1979 - US President Jimmy Carter hosts the Camp David Peace Accords - USA is the mediator who arranged a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. Returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt and Israel took the shape that most resembles what it looks like today.
Egypt and Syria invaded Israel…surprise attack on October 6th 1973, Yom Kippur: the most solemn religious day in the Jewish calendar.
The Israelis proved their military strength once again. Egypt was doomed, but saved by the bell when the United States and Soviets swooped in an organized a cease fire (Henry Kissinger)
The US was most interested in stopping the fighting because of an Oil embargo put forth by the Arab oil nations. The oil embargo effected nations who supported Israel (USA)
However, the dilemma remains…what do we do with the Palestinian refugees?
Some points of emphasis during this time period 1967-1973:
"No War, No Peace"
In the years after the 6 day war…there were no “wars” to speak of…but that is not to say there was “peace” either.
This era gave birth of Islamic Fundamentalism: a desire to return to a traditional Islamic values and beliefs: i.e.: Governments based on Religion, and they are willing to resort to violence in an effort to attain this. (militant groups came to the surface like the Muslim Brotherhood)
Oppose everything that is not Islamic in nature
Anti-European Imperialism
The Jews finally had control of (most of) their holy land, and they
were determined to keep it.
David Ben-Gurion was happy with the current situation:
Goal #1 - Jewish state (completed)
Goal #2 - Democratic form of Government in Israel (completed)
Goal #3 - ALL the historical land of Isreal (not completed)
Emergence of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) led by Yasser Arafat. Under his leadership, these Arabs increased their “terrorist” actions on/in Israel.
In response, Israel hit Palestinian camps.
United States and others tried to ease tensions between these groups…but had yet to find a middle ground for Jews and Palestinians
Temporary cease fires were somewhat successful, but splinter terrorist groups remained. Rejected peace treaties were responded to with continued attacks, Plane hijackings and protests led to the fourth war in 25 years.
135 AD -The final Jewish revolt is put down. The diaspora is in full effect
691 - The Dome of the Rock is built in Jeruslaem
1099 - Crusaders conquer Jerusalem and attempt to set up a Christian kingdom
1516 - Ottoman take control of Jerusalem
1880's - The birth of Zionism
This new Shape of Israel marks a new Dilemma: the Israeli Dilemma. Israel had changed shape and absorbed non-Jews in the process. Here is the dilemma:
“We want a purely Jewish state, but if we kick out the Arabs…then we are being hypocritical. We were given Israel because WE were kicked out of our land”
Choice 1 - keep newly gained land. Be less democratic. Deny Arab Citizenship in Israel.
Choice 2 -keep land, be democratic…but lose purely Jewish state.
Choice 3 - keep some land, be democratic, give back West Bank and Gaza Strip
Choice 4 - take action, expel refuges from West Bank/Gaza -attain purely Jewish state (this would achieve the 3rd uncompleted Zionist goal)
IN REALITY: JEWISH IMMIGRATION POPULATION STATISTICS
1882-1903: 25,000
1904: 1914: 40,000
1919-1923: 30,000
1924-1931: 84,000
1932-1938: 215,000
1939-1947: 154,000
1950 - LAW OF RETURN is passed
Think back to The White Papers. They were issued prior to WWII and limited Jewish immigrants to 75K. Well, much to the dismay of the Arab World, in 1950, the newly formed Jewish Government passed the ”Law of Return” stood in sharp contrast to promises made under British Mandate; the LAW OF RETURN states, “Any Jew, from anywhere in the world, can return to Israel and be granted full citizenship”
GROWTH: Total population of Israel
1948: 770,000
1954: 1,717, 814
1961: 2,232300
1969: 2,841,100
1973: 3,200,00
“Israel is a country which came into being by making another country cease to be”
This group consists of:
Arabs and their descendants who were not among the 750,000 who DID flee in 1948-49 - this group stayed in Israel.
Those who have lived under Israeli occupation since 1967 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. There were roughly 350,000 who DID flee at this time. (War of Words)
These camps are overseen by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency
1973: Palestinian Arabs numbered approximately 3.3 million. Of these, 1.4 million were living in Israel.
Arab refugee camps are located on the borders of Israel in Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, and Jordan.
The number of Palestine refugees varies depending on the who you talk to.
For our purposes, we will use these numbers:
The number of descendents of Palestinian refugees by country as of 2005 :
Jordan: 3 million
Gaza: 1 million
West Bank : 750,000
Syria 400,000
Lebanon 400,000
Egypt 75,000
ALLIED POWERS WIN "THE GREAT WAR"
This is a presentation on the Arab Israeli Conflict that is serving as a substitute for the books used as part of the 8th grade curriculum at Episcopal Academy in Philadelphia. Information was taken from 2 sources: The Middle East and North Africa: Regional Studies Series; Globe Book Company, 1993 and Arab Israeli Conflict: Modern World Problems; 1979 Greenhaven Press. Some dates and statistics might be outdated, but for the purposes of this resource, they are suitable. There is also events and facts missing from this timeline...but for the purposes of our assignment, present facts are suitable.
L. Eaks, Palestine: Background to Conflict
The Arab-Israeli Dilemma
WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?
IS THERE A SOLUTION?

2000 BC
AROUND THIS SAME TIME........
This was a major turning point on this timeline. When the truth behind the Nazi's WWII actions was realized... there was a worldwide sympathy for the Jews.
notice the location of Beersheba
notice the land in and around Jerusalem
it is tough to recognize the changes...
notice the land SE of the Gaza Strip
Notice the land West of Lake Tiberias
The Israeli Government summarized their
stance on the Refugees with 3 distinct views
1.) Israel did not create the problem. The war
was started by the Arabs who ignored the UN Partition plan and who invaded Israeli territory on May 15th, 1948
2.) Since 1948, many Jews have been forced to leave Arab countries to Israel (600K between 1948-1972). These people have been resettled and given homes... the Arabs could have done this for the Palestinians
3.) Arab leaders have deliberately
left the Palestinians in the refugee camps because it is good propaganda vs. Israel. Arab oil wealth could have easily solved this relocation problem
these Palestinians who started leaving Israel around this time were wealthier and had options, not all were so lucky.
Palestinian villages that fought the Jews faced two options: disarm or be destroyed. Many Palestinians became refugees at this time out of Fear of Jewish attack
at this point, the Jewish military force, the Haganah, started to act on the "disarm or be destroyed" tactic. Palestinian villages were surrounded and searched.
Many Palestinians were killed, men women and children, during this time period. Those who survived became refugees
As fear of Jewish violence quickly spread, so did the number of refugees. Neighboring Arab Countries tried to dissuade the Palestinians, but to little or no avail.
Roughly 700K refugees were created in the 2 year period surrounding the UN Partition plan
Palestine under the British Mandate (Sykes-Picot was the only promise that held up)The British were tongue-tied following the Three Promises they made during WWI. They were trying to untangle the web of lies and trying to keep the Arabs and Jews happy… it wasn’t working
The Zionist leaders (and soon to be leader of Israel) accepted the partition plan, the Palestinians did not. They were angry for two reasons:
1.) It was wrong to give Jews half the land when the Jewish population was only 1/3
2.) they did not like the idea that small groups of Arabs would be living under Jewish government in the new state.
There were roughly 160K Palestinians who did not leave, and lived under Israeli rule...under strict military control.
The Israeli Government quickly passed an "Absentees' Property Law" that confiscated the homes and land of the Palestinians who fled.
They were treated as "non Jews" in a Jewish State, discriminated against and treated as second class citizens.
information also taken courtesy of:
Their initial refusal to allow Holocaust survivors (the White Papers) into Palestine was met with wide worldwide criticism...
Israel is literally erased off the map. As a punishment
for continued revolts by the Jews, the Romans make Jerusalem a "Pagan" city and forbid Jews to congregate there. They also change the name of Israel to PALESTINE
Why did they make this bold statement? How did it come to be?
During World War I, Great Britain needed help. Since Germany (Britain's enemy during WWI) had cornered the production of acetone -- an important ingredient for arms production -- Great Britain may have lost the war if Chaim Weizmann had not invented a fermentation process that allowed the British to manufacture their own liquid acetone.
It was this fermentation process that brought Weizmann to the attention of David Lloyd George (minister of ammunitions) and Arthur James Balfour (previously the British prime minister but at this time the first lord of the admiralty). Chaim Weizmann was not just a scientist; he was also the leader of the Zionist movement.
THE WAR OF 1948

Referred to by the Arab World as:
al-Nakba:
The Catastrophe

Referred to by Jewish sympathizers as:
The War of Independence

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