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Sex Trafficking Victims
Trafficking in human beings is not a new phenomenon, especially that of girls and women. Historically, sex trafficking has taken many forms, however, in the context of globalization it has taken in a new and acquired shocking dimension (Moore, 2015). The sex trafficking is a complex, and multi-faceted phenomenon that involves multiple stakeholders at the commercial as well as institutional level. The market has changed into a demand-driven global business, which has a huge market for commercial sex as well as cheap labor that is confronted with insufficient and unexercised policy frameworks which has trained personnel in order to prevent it (Goodey, 2003).
A sex trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery, an evil perpetrated against humanity particularly women. In most developing nations, due to the level of poverty, sex trafficking has become other means to an end for some people (Lucchi, 2009). Traffickers are making millions of dollars by exploiting vulnerable young girls and desperate women. The sex trafficking phenomenon is mostly parallel around the world; young women and innocent girls are the victims while men are usually the perpetrators (Moore, 2015).
The boom in the sex industry over the years has paved ways for organized crime networks, which are established for the sole purpose of recruiting women and young girls. In most developing nations, poverty, political corruption and governmental insensitive to the needs of the people has pushed many to seek greener pasture, through which most women and young girls are coerced into sex trafficking.
The modern day slavery can be said to thrive because of the profitability that comes with the trafficking industry. The UN in its report estimated that modern day slavery generates around 8-10 billion dollars annually. It is imperative to note that this is the third largest profits behind arms and the dealing of narcotics. Further, the moving of human cargo across borders is often easier as compared to drugs and arms which when found are seized.
Human beings are often reused and consequently can be re-trafficked; this is not the same case with drugs. To further worsen the situation, trafficking can be described as dangerous and secret (Lucchi, 2009). The victims for retaliation and even recrimination in different families and villages are afraid to bear witness against known traffickers. This is because these persons are often big people in the society that are capable of swift and ruthless retaliation.
It is of an essence to understand that the art of trafficking, as well as the attendant human rights violations in many cases, have very serious consequences on the side of the victim. The women that are often trafficked suffer from serious mental as well as physical health problems. The trafficking victims often suffer from extreme physical abuse as well as physical exhaustion. There are even times that the victims suffer from starvation (Moore, 2015).
The typical injuries that are experienced by those persons that are trafficked include broken bones, bruising and burns, concussions, as well as other injuries that can be said to be consistent with the assault. It is of importance to understand that some of these injuries often lead to adverse health problems, and they might require long-term treatment (Lucchi, 2009).
The persons that have been trafficked are often subjected to multiple cases of abuse over a long period and consequently they suffer from different and diverse health consequences that have been seen to be similar to those that are experienced by victims of prolonged torture.
The sexual exploitation is a traumatic event where there are emotional and physical effects on the victim. After experiencing the sexual exploitation women and girls often suffer a range wide of different physical and mental reactions. The most common include severe depression and stress. The women also have physical deformities as a result of the prolonged sexual exploitation (Moore, 2015).
They are highly vulnerable to sexual as well as reproductive health complications; these includes sexually transmitted diseases as well as other gynecological diseases. In many cases, the women that are trafficked into the sex trade are not allowed to use condoms or even other methods of birth control. Further, they also do not undergo gynecological examinations. These women, therefore, face the risk of unwanted pregnancies as well as the threat of miscarriages (Lucchi, 2009). This, therefore, shows the reason as to why many women that have been trafficked for the reason of sexual trafficking experience high rates of abortion, infertility as well as sterilization.
Therefore, this type of both physical and sexual abuse often leads to severe mental as well as emotional health consequences; this includes the feelings of guilt, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, depression, eating disorders as well as anxiety. In some cases that are extreme, the mental anguish that the sexual exploitation victims feel leads to self-mutilation or even at times suicide (Moore, 2015). Therefore, for this reason, it is imperative that the victims of trafficking when they are recovered, be given proper physical as well as psychological care as part of their standard medical treatment.
The scourge of HIV/AIDS is rampant with women that have been sexually exploited; it is of essence to understand that around 70% of the women that are trafficked for the purpose of sex are HIV positive (Lucchi, 2009). This, therefore, shows that the HIV menace is the biggest health impediment when it comes to the solving of health issues with different victims. It is important for service providers as well as law enforcement officials to understand the phenomenon regarding human trafficking for sexual exploitation (Moore, 2015). In many cases, it might not be immediately apparent that those women and children require a different kind of support and assistance; however, with time the health care professionals should understand that the needs of the trafficking victims are diverse.
How the topic fits into Psychology
The trauma that is often associated with sex trafficking and its psychological effects can be devastating, and if it is left unaddressed, it can be able to undermine victim’s recovery and it can potentially contribute to the re-victimization. Traffickers are often known to dehumanize as well as objectify their victims (Lucchi, 2009). In fact, in most instances, the victim’s innate sense of power, visibility as well as dignity often becomes obscured.
The traffickers are often known to use coercive tactics as well as the force to make the victims feel that they are worthless and feel that indeed they are emotionally imprisoned (Moore, 2015). As a result, in most instances the victims often lose their sense of security and identity. There are various psychological symptoms that often surface after a period even after the victims have been able to escape and are rescued from the trafficking environment. Therefore, it is critical to understand that indeed psychological support is needed for the victims, and this is where psychology is important in this field (Moore, 2015).
Most of the victims often suffer from Post-Traumatic stress disorder. The post-traumatic stress disorder is one of the mental health illnesses. For one to have the disorder, they must have gone through the traumatic event that are usually painful. The advantage of the post-traumatic disorder is that it's caused is known as compared to other mental illnesses. This way a therapist knows what they are dealing with when attending to their patients.
Most of the people affected by post-traumatic stress disorder are war veterans. This is because during the war they come across traumatizing experiences that are hard to erase. Most of the victims end up taking excess alcohol or get depressed (Thio, 12). Some of the victims end up isolating from the rest and avoid situations that will lead to them remembering what happened during the war. This is the same case with sex-trafficking victims, most of them suffer from PTSD.
Casualties of post-traumatic stress disorder find it hard to find the best solution for their condition. The problem that they face is because the condition is entirely mental. By being mental, it affects most aspects of the victim including the physical part. The post-traumatic stress disorder is a condition that causes the victim to experience hyperarousal, avoidance and emotional numbing. These characteristics result from traumatic events that victims go through in a part of their lives (Nash, 2013). The study of PTSD involves observation of symptoms. This leads to many psychologists to believe that the condition arises as a result of the body reacting to normal stress. They believe that this is the normal way of the body of reacting to stressful conditions (Nash, 2013).
There are several theories that suggest that symptoms of PTSD vary from one victim to another. This variation depends on the ability of the body to withstand and cope with a certain traumatic event. Some victims can recover from the condition after a very short time. Others seem to maintain the condition for a long time with some cases lasting for the rest of the victim’s life (Nash, 2013). This condition occurs as a result of breaking the basic assumption of an individual about his invulnerability and the overall safety in the environment surrounding him. Exposure to these conditions causes the brain to break down and become weak.
The brain of a person in normal circumstances can integrate the trauma in his memory. However, PTSD causes the individual’s brain to form faulty beliefs about why some situations took place. The individual’s brain interprets the activities with guilt and self-blame. This causes the individual to get problems in trusting himself. Loss of self-esteem, control and intimacy causes the person to have problems integrating trauma in his memory (Nash, 2013).
The post-traumatic stress disorder is the only disorder that is caused by anxiety and has its cause known. This uniqueness helps in its treatment since the therapist and counselors tackle the issue directly (Nash, 2013). In post-traumatic stress disorder, anything that makes one feel like it’s a traumatic experience may result to the disorder. Some of the events that are likely to cause the disorder include violent acts, life-threatening disease, surviving car crash, natural catastrophe, war, and sexual assault (Kara, 2009).
Gaps in Current research
There are several gaps that exist in the literature regarding sex trafficking. Sex Trafficking has a socio-economic and political basis that is complex and is linked to the global larger processes. Therefore, it is not simply a matter of morals or social waywardness. Therefore, it is imperative to understand that this problem cannot be treated with a casual approach but should be treated as a developmental concern that requires a balanced, layered and integral approach built on a solid strategic framework intended to end the scourge. However, this scourge has not been well understood, and its socio-economic basis has yet to be well researched.
Religion plays a significant role in the lives of its citizens. The actions and attitude of the people are largely shaped by religion. A religious leader and clergymen are held in high regard in most parts of the world. As a result, religion is one of the known methods employed by traffickers to control their victims. Black magic is used in this process and the victim’s body parts such as, pubic hair, menstrual flows, pictures and many more are collected and sent to Juju (Voodoo) priests to ensure the loyalty and obedience of the victims to their trafficker.
The voodoo priests are sometimes unaware of the traffickers’ objectives and are deceived into performing acts that coerce the victims (Kara, 2009). The government needs to incorporate religious organizations and religious leaders to aid in the fight against sex trafficking. If this is not done the war against sexual trafficking will not be won. However, there has been little research that has been done in regards to religion and its role especially in Western Africa where black magic is well propagated (Kara, 2009).
How research can help address the problem
There is the need for different governments to create a reintegration program that seeks to serve the needs of the internally trafficked or the repatriated children. There is a need for the governments to create a program where those that have been trafficked are first addressed medically and financially before they are repatriated to their homes. Many children that have been often trafficked lose touch with their homes, and some of them do not even have homes as they are born in the streets (Crawford, 2008). The persons lack the necessary social services and because there are no programs that exist they do not receive the required assistance that is a need to help the children recover from the abuses that they have suffered.
Research has shown that because of a lack of a repartition program, the deported trafficked persons are often at a higher risk of being re-trafficked and this time severely traumatized (Kara, 2009). Therefore, the different government should create a reintegration program that will attempt to facilitate the reintegration of trafficked persons as well as their relatives through education, skill acquisition and income generating activities. The presence of this program will reduce the occurrence of re-trafficking and will also set the benchmark for the persons that were trafficked not to plunge into poverty.
Governments need to increase the strength of its law enforcement to combat trafficking. Similarly, law enforcement must be adequately trained in issues about sex trafficking. The government should sign agreements with destination and transit countries to decrease the number of women and children being trafficked (Crawford, 2008). The co-operation of the different countries will ensure that indeed there is no person that is trafficked outside and taken into another country forcibly or unknowingly (Kara, 2009).
Trafficking Awareness training course should be implemented in the law enforcement standard curriculum as well as the protection of victims which is the most important of any Memorandum should be integrated. There should also be legislation that is intended to suppress as well as prevent human trafficking. There should be direct legislation regarding sexual exploitation, and a stiff penalty should be put in for the offenders (Crawford, 2008).
Victims, as well as the general public, need to be well educated on sex trafficking. Lack of education is an important reason individuals fall victim to traffickers in the first place. The definition for sex trafficking is somewhat constricted, thus why awareness needs to be raised for the general populations. If victims were well informed about this evil act, they wouldn’t have fallen victims to their traffickers. Similarly, education and empowerment of victims are also paramount; these will offer them a chance to be self-sufficient and increase their effectiveness in educating the public. The culture, particularly the mass media, plays a large role in normalizing prostitution by portraying it as a glamorous, fast and easy way of making money. The government needs to employ the mass media in the combat against sex trafficking, by exposing the evils behind the practice.
This paper will employ the descriptive research method to better understand the psychological impact of sex trafficking victims. There will be the use of 200 sex trafficking victims and their psychological well-being after the trafficking will be assessed. From victim stories and their discussions about how they felt during the ordeal, an evaluation of their mental health can be easily accessed and determined. This study will use secondary research as the main form of getting data. The secondary data will be gotten from Stories of sex trafficking victims that have been published in reputed journals. This will ensure that there is sufficient data to conduct a carefully planned analysis. The study will involve the getting of data from different sources that are accredited as well as peer-reviewed articles that relate to sex trafficking victims.
Data collection from the stories will be analyzed using expressive tables and tools. This will provide a more graphical depiction for data analysis. Bar graphs, pie charts, and tables can be used for pictorial representation.
This is the best method for this research as it gives the different perspectives and works on the limited budget of the researcher.
In this study, descriptive research methods are used. This type of research is a significant one since it involves comprehensive analysis and description of the elements in a survey. It is especially critical in this study since it is used in the description of a population’s characteristics. This type of research mainly deals with the ‘what’ question rather than the how, when or why. This makes this type different from causal research.
Causal research refers an investigative study that seeks to determine the effect of a given thing or behavior on another thing. This is clearly different from descriptive research that examines the characteristics of a given situation or population. Descriptive research is the most current form of research, Thyer (2010). It covers more information compared with the other types of research. This research uses this approach since the subject being analyzed requires qualitative checking of behavior that is not automatic. It is also used since it will provide a more detailed analysis of the subject matter as compared to other approaches.
Some of the research questions that will be explored include
1. What are some of the psychological disorders that the victims of sex trafficking possess?
2. What programs can the government have to ensure that sex trafficking is reduced?
3. What is the role of poverty, religion and inadequate governments in sex trafficking?
This research is a quantitative one. This is because the findings of the research are subjected to various empirical, mathematical or statistical, computational techniques.
The first principle that was considered was that of self-determination which meant that the participants had the right to decide voluntarily if they wanted to participate in the experiment (Crawford, 2008). This was done through e-mail to the publishers of their stories, and formal permission was asked to assess the victim’s psychological conditions based on their stories. Further, the researchers had to obtain informed consent before the conducting of research.
The participants (through the different publishers) that took part in this study were informed about the nature of the study and what the finding of the study will be done with. There was also the issue of asking for an institutional review board for permission to conduct the experiment. This is because the study deals with human subjects and consequently, there is a need to obtain consent from the review board.
There is also a need to understand the impact of human sex trafficking on multiple generations. There are many questions that remain unanswered in the investigation of this topic. Therefore, there is a need to understand the trauma that the second generation faces and the impact that it has on their development (Bernat, 2011).
There is a need for research into the issue of which training methods are best when it comes to combating this menace that is sex trafficking. It is essential for the governments involved engaging in an education mechanism with the authorities implementing and responsible for safeguarding human rights. Training of the police and other law enforcement officials is vital when handling the human trafficking menace. Government authorities’ personnel should undergo training aiming at identifying and as well tracking down the traffickers involved in the overall process. Additionally, government agencies and departments dealing with sex trafficking should be federally mandated.
Often, the federal mandate of this personnel and agencies is through financial support and aiding them with the necessary support during the fight against sex trafficking. Despite the implemented policies, victim smuggling in the border is still rising. Conversely, the government should support the authorities involved in dealing with sex trafficking crimes aiming at easing perpetrator identification and arresting (Bernat, 2011). Educating these departments’ personnel on how sex traffickers cross the borders is vital in ensuring that they have the capability of dealing with the social issue. There is, therefore, a need for further research to show exactly what the government needs to do and the loopholes that currently exist in the current system that can be effectively eradicated.
Future research can be able to look at several issues and address several real-world problems. Poverty can be said to be a major cause of human trafficking and consequently the measures of addressing poverty are crucial. There is a need for the different governments where trafficking is an issue to create different programs that are aimed at alleviating poverty in the country (Bernat, 2011). The eradication of poverty will see the market of human trafficking decline, this is because many people especially women and children are often duped into human trafficking for sexual exploitation because of looking for greener pastures as well as better opportunities in life (Bernat, 2011).
There is a need to involve women when it comes to planning, implementation as well as monitoring the various governmental programs that address the poverty. The lack of representation of women in these important processes means that the programs fail to take into account the needs of women. Therefore, the different governments should make sure that there is a woman in each of the required sectors in a bid to ensure that women are equally represented economically in the country.
Another solution is to create awareness in regards to sexual trafficking in the country; the lack of awareness directly leads to the escalation of human trafficking. More research into trafficking for sexual exploits should be studied; it is of importance to understand that until recently, there was no tangible research on trafficking persons and the victim’s experience (Richards, 2014). The media reports were the ones that were used in the estimation of trafficking, and many of the reports that were published are by governments that hugely underestimated the issues. Further, the overall lack of adequate gender specific data and prevalence of trafficking of persons made it difficult to monitor as well as understand the evolution of the phenomenon in a bid to design strategies that are supposed to combat it.
Adams, C. (2011). Re-Trafficked Victims: How a Human Rights Approach can Stop the Cycle of Re-Victimization of Sex Trafficking Victims. The George Washington International Law Review,
Bernat, F. P. (2011). Human sex trafficking. London: Routledge.
Countryman-Roswurm, K., & Bolin, B. L. (2014). Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: Assessing and Reducing Risk. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 31, 6, 521-538.
Crawford, M., & Kaufman, M. R. (2008). Sex trafficking in Nepal: survivor characteristics and long-term outcomes. Violence against Women, 14, 8, 905-16.
Goodey, J. (2003). Recognising organised crime's victims: The case of sex trafficking in the EU. Transnational Organised Crime : Perspectives on Global Security, 157-173.
Kara, S. (2009). Sex trafficking: Inside the business of modern slavery. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lucchi, S. R. (2010). Victims of Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation.
Moore, A. S., & Goldberg, E. S. (2015). Victims, Perpetrators, and the Limits of Human Rights Discourse in Post Palermo Fiction About Sex Trafficking. International Journal of Human Rights
Nash, T., & Elmquist, S. (2013). Prisoners among us: In the fight to end adult sex trafficking, the line between criminal and victim can become blurred. Style Weekly, 50, 14-16.
Richards, T. A. (2014). Health implications of human trafficking. Nursing for Women's Health, 18, 2.)
Advice on Writing Human trafficking topics research papers.
At one point in time as one advance in the academic ladder from high school through college and university, one of the requirements by the professors will be the presentation of a research paper. Human trafficking topics research paper, therefore, need not be such a hassle for any student who is aptly prepared for the supposedly daunting task.
The mere mention of a research paper sends jitters to most scholars, but with appropriate guidance and preparation, the ensuring smooth flow leaves one wondering what anyone has to fear writing a research paper. The following steps should act as a guide towards accomplishing the task of writing a research paper.
Areas to focus on that are important
- Choose a research topic: Under normal circumstances in a class situation, a number of topics of study will be given by the professor for the students to choose from. In other instances, the field might be open. Whichever the case, and more so while writing this kind of essay topics , one needs to look deeply and critically into the topics at hand to establish their uniqueness; availability of sufficient research materials including related works that could offer some literature review on which to build on in the new research.
- From among the given research topics, choose one that you are comfortable with and can identify with to the point that even if all other people taking the course were to write on the same topic, your research paper would stand out unique and original.
- Seeking the opinion of other people is not an indication of failure or inability. Rather seeking the advice of fellow course mates and at times even that of the teachers will help one make some informed choice of the topic of study. It pays to brainstorm the research topics as a class after which individuals venture into a collection of data and literature suitable for their respective topics.
- Literature review: Related scholarly works done in previous years that have been evaluated and vouched for by experts serves as a starting point and gives one an insight of what is expected. It is important therefore to visit college libraries to peruse through both hard copies and digital books and journals written in the area of interest. The internet with its many search engines is a hub of knowledge and information in any area of study and should be used accordingly.
- Once all the material has been gathered, it is now time to sit and organize it into a proper research paper. Writing human trafficking topics research paper more often than not will involve the formulation of a research thesis into a research question that your research will try to answer once the material collected has been organized and data analyzed.
Required format for the essay topics
- When writing the research paper, care should be taken on the required formatting requirements which differ from Institution to Institution and also the length of the research paper being written APA, MLA Chicago and Taliban are the most common formatting methods in use in the world today. Know what is expected in the formatting required by the supervisor A relatively long paper should be that points could be expounded in more than one paragraph whereas a short paper could mean that points are briefly described.
- Every point mentioned in the research paper should be supported with proper citations and these referenced properly as per the formatting guidelines, but direct quotations should be avoided as much as possible for the work to look original and in avoidance of plagiarism.
- The conclusion should be a summary of what has been done in the research paper, and the recommendations emanating from the research carried out.
- The bibliography is a vital component of every research paper and should be properly written as per the guidelines.
- Before the final copy is presented to your supervisor for marking, it is important that you go through your work with a fine tooth- comb as it were, to make sure that there are no errors whether grammatical, spelling or quotations that do not make sense. Peer review of your work will also help as they can be able to highlight areas you could do better to change or even errors that could not be seen by the self.
- Once all this has been done, the final copy is properly written and handed over to the supervisor for marking having taken care of the loose ends.
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